Smart grid Wikipedia. A smart grid is an electrical grid which includes a variety of operational and energy measures including smart meters, smart appliances, renewable energy resources, and energy efficient resources. Electronic power conditioning and control of the production and distribution of electricity are important aspects of the smart grid. Smart grid policy is organized in Europe as Smart Grid European Technology Platform. Policy in the United States is described in 4. U. S. C. ch. 1. 52, subch. IX 1. 73. 81. Roll out of smart grid technology also implies a fundamental re engineering of the electricity services industry, although typical usage of the term is focused on the technical infrastructure. BackgroundeditHistorical development of the electricity grideditThe first alternating currentpower grid system was installed in 1. Great Barrington, Massachusetts. At that time, the grid was a centralized unidirectional system of electric power transmission, electricity distribution, and demand driven control. In the 2. 0th century local grids grew over time, and were eventually interconnected for economic and reliability reasons. By the 1. 96. 0s, the electric grids of developed countries had become very large, mature and highly interconnected, with thousands of central generation power stations delivering power to major load centres via high capacity power lines which were then branched and divided to provide power to smaller industrial and domestic users over the entire supply area. The topology of the 1. GW 1. 00. 0 MW to 3 GW scale are still found to be cost effective, due to efficiency boosting features that can be cost effective only when the stations become very large. Power stations were located strategically to be close to fossil fuel reserves either the mines or wells themselves, or else close to rail, road or port supply lines. Siting of hydro electric dams in mountain areas also strongly influenced the structure of the emerging grid. Nuclear power plants were sited for availability of cooling water. Canon Bg-E11 Battery Grip Manual. Finally, fossil fuel fired power stations were initially very polluting and were sited as far as economically possible from population centres once electricity distribution networks permitted it. By the late 1. 96. Metering of electricity consumption was necessary on a per user basis in order to allow appropriate billing according to the highly variable level of consumption of different users. Because of limited data collection and processing capability during the period of growth of the grid, fixed tariff arrangements were commonly put in place, as well as dual tariff arrangements where night time power was charged at a lower rate than daytime power. The motivation for dual tariff arrangements was the lower night time demand. 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Dual tariffs made possible the use of low cost night time electrical power in applications such as the maintaining of heat banks which served to smooth out the daily demand, and reduce the number of turbines that needed to be turned off overnight, thereby improving the utilisation and profitability of the generation and transmission facilities. The metering capabilities of the 1. Through the 1. 97. In some areas, supply of electricity, especially at peak times, could not keep up with this demand, resulting in poor power quality including blackouts, power cuts, and brownouts. Increasingly, electricity was depended on for industry, heating, communication, lighting, and entertainment, and consumers demanded ever higher levels of reliability. Towards the end of the 2. The relatively low utilisation of these peaking generators commonly, gas turbines were used due to their relatively lower capital cost and faster start up times, together with the necessary redundancy in the electricity grid, resulted in high costs to the electricity companies, which were passed on in the form of increased tariffs. In the 2. 1st century, some developing countries like China, India, and Brazil were seen as pioneers of smart grid deployment. Modernization opportunitieseditSince the early 2. Technological limitations on metering no longer force peak power prices to be averaged out and passed on to all consumers equally. In parallel, growing concerns over environmental damage from fossil fired power stations has led to a desire to use large amounts of renewable energy. Dominant forms such as wind power and solar power are highly variable, and so the need for more sophisticated control systems became apparent, to facilitate the connection of sources to the otherwise highly controllable grid. Power from photovoltaic cells and to a lesser extent wind turbines has also, significantly, called into question the imperative for large, centralised power stations. The rapidly falling costs point to a major change from the centralised grid topology to one that is highly distributed, with power being both generated and consumed right at the limits of the grid. Finally, growing concern over terrorist attack in some countries has led to calls for a more robust energy grid that is less dependent on centralised power stations that were perceived to be potential attack targets. Definition of smart grideditThe first official definition of Smart Grid was provided by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2. EISA 2. 00. 7, which was approved by the US Congress in January 2. President George W. Bush in December 2. Title XIII of this bill provides a description, with ten characteristics, that can be considered a definition for Smart Grid, as follows It is the policy of the United States to support the modernization of the Nations electricity transmission and distribution system to maintain a reliable and secure electricity infrastructure that can meet future demand growth and to achieve each of the following, which together characterize a Smart Grid 1 Increased use of digital information and controls technology to improve reliability, security, and efficiency of the electric grid. Dynamic optimization of grid operations and resources, with full cyber security. Quark develops a content automation platform that helps organizations streamline the creation, management, publishing and delivery of businesscritical content. Quark. With Smart Home Monitoring, Rogers lets you automate your home security system using your cell phone, so your home is safe no matter where you are. OMRON Introduces a Highly Flexible PV System with Smart Inverter and DC Optimizers Targeting the US Residential Market. September 2, 2016. Smart Home Automation System Pdf' title='Smart Home Automation System Pdf' />EBook Home Automation Using ESP8266 3rd Edition A colorful 326 pages long PDF with stepbystep instructions, all the source code, detailed schematics and. Deployment and integration of distributed resources and generation, including renewable resources. Development and incorporation of demand response, demand side resources, and energy efficiency resources. Deployment of smart technologies real time, automated, interactive technologies that optimize the physical operation of appliances and consumer devices for metering, communications concerning grid operations and status, and distribution automation. Integration of smart appliances and consumer devices. Deployment and integration of advanced electricity storage and peak shaving technologies, including plug in electric and hybrid electric vehicles, and thermal storage air conditioning. Provision to consumers of timely information and control options. Development of standards for communication and interoperability of appliances and equipment connected to the electric grid, including the infrastructure serving the grid. Identification and lowering of unreasonable or unnecessary barriers to adoption of smart grid technologies, practices, and services. A common element to most definitions is the application of digital processing and communications to the power grid, making data flow and information management central to the smart grid. Various capabilities result from the deeply integrated use of digital technology with power grids. Shop Iris White Wireless Home Automation Button at Lowes. 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